Surveying is the science and art of measuring distances, both horizontal and vertical and
angles on or near the surface of the earth. It is also said that survey and investigation is an
orderly process of acquiring data relating to the physical characteristics of the earth and in
particular the relative position of points and the magnitude of areas. Some of the common
survey types have been listed below.
Land surveys: which fix property lines, calculate land areas and assist with the
transfer of real property from one owner to another.
Engineering surveys: which collect the data needed to plan and design
engineering projects. The information ensures the necessary position and dimension
control on the site so that the structure is built in the proper place and as designed.
Informational surveys: obtain data concerning topography, drainage and man-
made features of a large area. This data is portrayed as maps and charts.
Topographic surveys: are performed to gather data necessary to prepare
topographic maps. These are multicolor contour maps portraying the terrain; and
rivers; highways, railways, bridges and other man-made features.
Hydrographic surveys: map the shorelines of bodies of water; chart the bottom of
streams, lakes, harbors and coastal waters; measure the flow of rivers; and assess
other factors affecting navigation and water resources. The sounding of depths by
radar is involved in this type of survey.
Construction surveys: fix elevations, horizontal positions and dimensions for
The survey works are done by the latest international standard instruments and