Surveying is the science and art of measuring distances, both horizontal and vertical and angles on or near the surface of the earth. It is also said that survey and investigation is an orderly process of acquiring data relating to the physical characteristics of the earth and in particular the relative position of points and the magnitude of areas. Some of the common survey types have been listed below.
- Land surveys: which fix property lines, calculate land areas and assist with the transfer of real property from one owner to another.
- Engineering surveys: which collect the data needed to plan and design engineering projects. The information ensures the necessary position and dimension control on the site so that the structure is built in the proper place and as designed.
- Informational surveys: obtain data concerning topography, drainage and man- made features of a large area. This data is portrayed as maps and charts.
- Topographic surveys: are performed to gather data necessary to prepare topographic maps. These are multicolor contour maps portraying the terrain; and rivers; highways, railways, bridges and other man-made features.
- Hydrographic surveys: map the shorelines of bodies of water; chart the bottom of streams, lakes, harbors and coastal waters; measure the flow of rivers; and assess other factors affecting navigation and water resources. The sounding of depths by radar is involved in this type of survey.
- Construction surveys: fix elevations, horizontal positions and dimensions for construction projects.
The survey works are done by the latest international standard instruments and technologies.